Spotlight on the Clean and Green Cities Program

According to UN-Habitat, the United Nations program dedicated to building a better urban future, clean, green, and beautiful public spaces are one of the most important elements of a livable city. High-quality public spaces that are not profit-based and that are accessible to all bring many benefits to a city: they enhance community cohesion, promote health and well-being, and allow cities to support a higher population density.

It was in order to bring these benefits to some of Afghanistan’s cities, many of which are still recovering from the effects of decades of conflict and population displacement, that UN-Habitat helped launch the Clean and Green Cities (CGC) program in March of 2017. Read on to learn more about the CGC program and about UN-Habitat.

 

What is the Clean and Green Cities program?

The CGC program is an urban initiative that is working to implement public space upgrades and improve certain municipal services in a dozen cities around Afghanistan, including Kabul. Over the last few decades, conflict, unregulated development, rapid population growth, and aging infrastructure and services have seriously compromised the livability of many of Afghanistan’s urban centers.

The CGC program aims to address this on a local scale by providing support for key “cleaning and greening” activities. These activities are carried out by local residents in cooperation with each city’s municipal government and nahias (a nahia is a municipal administrative sub-district: essentially, a neighborhood).

In addition to the refreshment and revitalization of public spaces, job creation and economic stimulus are important components of the CGC program. Through the funding it receives from a number of international supporters, including the EU, the CGC program creates jobs for more than 13,500 people. The program has a particular focus on making the jobs accessible to vulnerable populations, including returnees and the urban poor. UN-Habitat supports these efforts through technical assistance and expertise.

 

What CGC initiatives have taken place so far?

In Kabul, five major categories of cleaning and beautification activities have been identified by the community and the municipal government. These are: collecting solid waste from households, planting trees, sweeping streets, painting curbs, and cleaning roadside ditches. Under the umbrella of the CGC program, these activities will be carried out regularly, and in accordance with set standards of performance, through coordinated planning efforts from the municipality of Kabul and specially created nahia development committees.

More recently, in February 2018, the mayor of Kabul announced that seven public parks in the city would also be upgraded as part of the CGC program. This particular activity was inspired by the New Urban Agenda, the UN’s action blueprint for sustainable urban development that emphasizes the importance of safe, inclusive, and accessible green public spaces.

To help its parks conform to this vision, the municipality of Kabul has outlined a program of walkway upgrades within and around the park; grass and tree planting; well digging and implementation of an irrigation distribution system; electrical connection; upgrades to the boundary wall and installation of entrance gates; and the installation of benches throughout the park.

 

What is UN-Habitat?

An essential program of the United Nations, UN-Habitat works toward a better urban future. It aims to promote and develop human settlements that are socially and environmentally sustainable and to achieve adequate shelter for all global citizens. UN-Habitat has been working to fulfil this vision ever since it was mandated by the UN General Assembly in 1978.

Even at that time, urbanization issues relating to the uncontrolled growth of cities were already apparent. Since then, cities around the world have continued to experience unprecedented change. Today, the challenges—demographic, environmental, economic, social, and spatial—that the world’s urban areas are now facing are extreme. In view of the projection that 60 percent of the global population will be living in cities by the year 2030, it is clear that UN-Habitat’s work is more vital than ever before.

To guide its vision for well-planned, well-governed, and efficient cities and human settlements that offer all their residents adequate housing, infrastructure, employment opportunities, and basic services, UN-Habitat works with a medium-term strategy approach. Every six years, the organization develops a new strategic plan that provides continuity with the previous plan while facilitating an adaptable and effective response to emerging urban trends and offering opportunities for the incorporation of lessons learned from previous plans.

At present, UN-Habitat is working with a strategic plan that covers the years from 2014 to 2019. The seven focus areas of this plan are: urban legislation, land, and governance; urban planning and design; urban economy; the provision of basic services in urban areas; housing and slum upgrading; risk reduction and rehabilitation in urban areas; and research and capacity development. The first four areas are of particular importance in this iteration of the strategic plan, as they have been neglected in previous years in favor of other, higher-priority objectives.

How Is the ARTF Supporting Agriculture in Afghanistan?

ARTFlogoAs one of the largest international entities funding Afghanistan’s ongoing rebuilding and development process, the Afghanistan Reconstruction Trust Fund (ARTF) is committed to investing in projects that will make a real difference in the lives of ordinary Afghans. At present, one of the most important focus areas for ARTF support is agriculture.

Contributing 31% of Afghanistan’s GDP and employing an incredible 59% of its labor force, the agricultural sector is a critical component of Afghanistan’s future economic prosperity. Ensuring that it is properly financed is therefore a major priority for ARTF. Read on to learn more about some of the active agriculture portfolio investment projects that are currently receiving ARTF support.

 

On Farm Water Management Project

In an arid country like Afghanistan, where only about 12% of the land is arable, irrigation and water management initiatives are absolutely critical. However, years of conflict have left most of the modern irrigation systems throughout Afghanistan in a state of neglect and disrepair, making it difficult for farmers to achieve the levels of agricultural productivity needed to drive economic growth and ensure food security.

The primary objective of the On Farm Water Management Project is to enhance the efficiency of water use in targeted areas in order to improve agricultural productivity. Under the umbrella of the project, physical improvements of tertiary irrigation facilities (on individual farms) are being carried out, thus providing farmers with an improved, reliable, and equitable way to distribute irrigation water on their lands.

The project is expected to result in a 25% increase in water use efficiency in project areas and a 30% increase in the productivity of agricultural crops. In addition, water user organizations will likely be better able to carry out operations and maintenance tasks, and Afghanistan’s Ministry of Agriculture, Irrigation, and Livestock will have more capacity to plan, implement, and monitor future projects in this area.

Irrigation Rehabilitation and Development Project

Through the Irrigation Rehabilitation and Development Project, the ARTF is addressing the pressing question of irrigation and water management in Afghan agriculture on a larger scale than the On Farm Water Management Project described above. Despite recent achievements supported by other funders, there is still a huge unmet demand for irrigation rehabilitation all across Afghanistan. Prior to 1979, there were about 3.2 million hectares of irrigated area, but in 2007, that figure had fallen to just 1.8 million hectares. Between 2007 and 2011, close to 0.9 million hectares were rehabilitated, but there is still considerable work to do.

The Irrigation Rehabilitation and Development Project aims to close this gap by providing support for the rehabilitation of irrigation systems serving about 300,000 hectares of land. In addition, the project will invest in the design and construction of several small, multi-purpose dams and associated irrigation distribution systems in closed river basins. Other elements of the project include the establishment of facilities and services for hydro-meteorological work, and project management and capacity-building initiatives in several communities. The project is expected to yield a 15% increase in total irrigated area and a minimum 20% increase in crop yields in the newly rehabilitated zones.

 

National Horticulture and Livestock Project

The National Horticulture and Livestock Project works toward the ARTF’s overarching goal of increasing production of horticultural products and improving animal production and health. The main objective is to train farmers in improved production practices and to support them as they adopt these practices on an ongoing basis. Practically speaking, this involves a gradual rollout of farmer-centric agricultural services systems complemented by targeted investment support. The scope of the project has been expanding as conditions warrant, but has the capacity to serve up to 100 focus districts across 22 provinces.

Some of the expected results of the program include 6,000 hectares of rehabilitated orchards benefiting 30,000 people and the creation of 8,000 new orchards with a survival rate of at least 70%. In addition, close to 100,000 farmers will receive training in a horticulture production practice. Project managers also anticipate that 50% of targeted farmers will make regular livestock inoculation a part of their practice.

shepherd

 

Afghanistan Agriculture Inputs Project

The main objective of the Afghanistan Agriculture Inputs Project is to build and strengthen institutional capacity so that certified wheat seed can be sustainably produced and so that farmers can be sure the seed, pesticides, and other inputs they use are safe and reliable. With that goal in mind, the project works to boost capacity in the value chain for the production of certified wheat seed, and to prevent the marketing and sale of any pesticides and fertilizers that are banned, hazardous, sub-standard, or otherwise unreliable. The project also seeks to reduce the risk that plant quarantine pests will be introduced or spread throughout the country, and to facilitate farmers’ access to reliable, high-quality agricultural inputs. Expected results include higher annual production of certified seed, the development of an improved listing of plant quarantine pests and diseases, and testing of at least 180 product samples for pesticide residues.

How Is the Wildlife Conservation Society Helping Afghanistan?

The Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS) is a US-based organization that works to protect wild places, and the species that inhabit them, all around the world. The WCS has been spearheading environmental preservation and sustainable resource management efforts in Afghanistan since 2004.

Afghanistan’s environment has suffered greatly from decades of conflict. Additionally, many of its fragile ecosystems are under threat due to factors like over-hunting, deforestation, over-grazing, water diversion, and land encroachment. Through its work in Afghanistan, WCS aims both to preserve the country’s unique biological diversity, and to improve, through sustainable management practices, the natural resource base that 80 percent of Afghans currently depend on for their economic survival.

To date, WCS has launched and implemented conservation initiatives across a broad range of environmental categories, including:

 

Ecological Research

When WCS began working in Afghanistan, understanding the condition of the country’s natural resources was a top priority. To help the Government of Afghanistan develop a critically-needed baseline on which to build sustainable resource management decisions, WCS conducted a number of important ecological research surveys that helped prioritize areas for further protection.

Some of the key results and insights achieved by this work included the identification of the range, population, and threats to Afghanistan’s ungulates, such as the majestic Marco Polo sheep; the identification of several new species of birds and their habitat; the implementation of Afghanistan’s first-ever satellite tagging program for snow leopards; and extensive surveys of wildlife and rangeland in Bamyan province.

 

ibex

 

Community Natural Resource Governance

When local and national-level government agencies work together with local communities to develop governance and management systems for natural resources, everyone benefits. Communities feel empowered to take ownership of the conservation process, and protection and preservation efforts are more robust and effective because of increased buy-in from the very people most affected.

To date, the community natural resource governance initiatives that WCS has helped implement in Afghanistan are closely connected to the country’s two national parks. These initiatives include the democratically-elected Band-e-Amir Protected Area Committee, the Band-e-Amir Community Council, and the Wakhan Pamir Association.

 

Wildlife-Livestock Health

WCS works in some of the most remote areas in Afghanistan, where both people and animals have limited access to health care. Thus, an important part of WCS’ efforts to conserve wildlife populations involves addressing the health of livestock and local herders in order to diminish the risk of disease introduction and communication between domestic and wild animals, and between animals and humans.

Some of the steps that WCS veterinary teams have taken in this direction include performing the first surveys for avian influenza (in both wild birds and poultry) in a number of northern Afghan provinces, identifying new livestock pathogens, developing educational material in local languages to educate farmers and herders on wildlife diseases, and conducting comprehensive livestock vaccination campaigns.

 

Wildlife Trafficking

WCS has played an instrumental role in identifying, and working to combat, the extent to which the international community is driving wildlife trafficking through demand for wildlife furs and for exotic species as pets. Surveys conducted by WCS have helped identify threats to protected wildlife. Additionally, outreach to key stakeholders and the development of more effective legislation is intended to reduce the trade in wildlife and improve the enforcement of infractions.

 

Asiatic black bear

 

Climate Change

In Afghanistan’s already harsh mountain landscapes, climate change is expected to pose unique challenges to humans and wildlife alike. To help the country assess the potential impacts of climate change and prepare to mitigate its effects, WCS has been working on studies of long-term changes in air temperature. This is an important proxy to understand how animal survival is affected by climate. It is also collecting data monitoring the retreat of glaciers in the Wakhan area in order to provide information on the expected impact of climate change on the important ice water stores of the Amu Darya River.

 

Community Livelihoods

In remote regions of Afghanistan, human communities and endangered wildlife often share the same habitat and depend on the same resources for survival. To help ensure a sustainable future for people and animals alike, and to reduce pressure on already overused local resources, WCS has been working with local communities to find new ways of increasing incomes and diversifying livelihoods that do not come at the expense of wildlife and critical natural habitat.

Of these efforts, ecotourism is one of the biggest. Now that Afghanistan has two national parks, WCS and its partners are working to make the most of sustainable tourism in these areas and expand the benefits that the increased numbers of tourists can bring.

 

Legislation and Policy

One of WCS’ most important goals in Afghanistan is to help the government develop, implement, and enforce environmental protection legislation. To date, the organization has worked with government agencies and many national and international partners to establish new laws that protect wildlife and habitat, to develop a comprehensive plan for protected areas, to build knowledge of environmental laws and best practices among Afghan policy-makers, and to promote collaborative, cross-border conservation efforts.