5 Fascinating Facts about Afghanistan’s Official Languages

Did you know that Afghanistan has not one but two official languages? After coexisting on an informal basis for centuries, both Pashto and Dari (the Afghan term for the language which is also known as Farsi or Persian) were recognized in Afghanistan’s 2004 constitution as the two official languages of the state.

Read on for a look at some fascinating facts about the history, usage, and relationship between these two different but equally important tongues.

The proportional balance between Dari and Pashto speakers is fairly close.

According to recent estimates, roughly 50 percent of all Afghans speak some version of Dari, while over 40 percent speak Pashto.

Dari—the first language of ethnic groups such as the Tajiks, Hazaras, and Aimaqs—is generally viewed as the lingua franca in Afghanistan and has long been used for business and government transactions. Pashto, on the other hand, is the first language of the Pashtuns, who comprise Afghanistan’s largest ethnic minority. It’s also interesting to note that bilingualism and multilingualism are fairly common across the country. For example, many Pashtuns in urban areas also speak Dari, while Dari-speaking Afghans with higher levels of education often have a good command of Pashto as well.

Dari and Pashto are both written using the Arabic alphabet.

Although Arabic is linguistically quite different from Afghanistan’s official languages, it is the Arabic alphabet that is primarily used for both Dari and Pashto, with a few modifications. For example, the modern Dari alphabet includes three extra characters that represent sounds that do not occur in traditional Arabic. Pashto goes even further, using all the Arabic letters, the additional Dari letters, and a number of other special Pashto letters for sounds that are not found in either of the other two languages (in total, the Pashto alphabet has 44 letters, while standard Arabic has 28).

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Not everyone is in favor of the term Dari.

Although Dari is the official Afghan word for the Persian language, not everyone agrees on using it. Some Persian-speaking Afghans object to the use of the word on the grounds that it makes the language seem like a separate dialect (that is, the Afghan dialect of Farsi), when in fact, Farsi and Dari are simply two different words for the same language. (This is certainly not to say that there are not distinct accents and variations when it comes to vocabulary and usage, as indeed there are throughout the country, only that these are not enough to constitute a completely different dialect.)

Other Persian speakers believe that calling their language Dari makes them feel too separated from the cultural, linguistic, and historical ties that they share with the rest of the Persian-speaking world, including countries such as Iran and Tajikistan. As a compromise, some linguistic activists in Afghanistan refer to the Persian language as Farsi-Dari.

Some of Afghanistan’s best-known poetry is written in Dari.

Over the course of the last two millennia, during which a series of Persian dynasties spread Farsi throughout significant areas of Central Asia, the language developed a deep, rich, textual presence. Today, scholars can draw on a wealth of historical Persian volumes on philosophy, science, and statecraft to trace the evolution of the Persian language over the course of centuries. Part of this extensive literature includes many works of poetry, including those by Afghanistan’s best-known and most beloved poet Rumi.

A 13th-century poet and theologian, Rumi was known for mixing sensual and religious themes and imagery together in his work. His most famous work, known as the Mathanvi or the Masnavi, is a six-book spiritual epic that attempts to teach Sufi Muslims how to become one with God. Originally written in Dari, Rumi’s poetry has been translated into many different languages and is widely read all over the world.

Unlike Dari, Pashto was a primarily spoken language.

Although the last few centuries have seen an important expansion in the body of writing and literature in Pashto, this language, in contrast to Dari, was long a primarily spoken language. (This is partly to do with the relatively restricted location of Pashto speakers, who have been largely isolated in the mountains of the Hindu Kush.)

As a result, the richness of the Pashto oral tradition is remarkable. For example, in addition to long-form oral poetry and stories, a special genre of short Pashto folk poems called landays has developed. Composed by women and typically sung aloud to the beat of a drum, these poems describe the everyday trials, tribulations, and joys of life for Afghan women. Today, alongside this oral tradition, Pashto writing and literature are more widely recognized due in part to the acclaim given to poets such as Khushal Khan Khattak, a 17th-century warrior and poet whose works touch on subjects such as unity, honor, war, and love.

Everything You Need to Know About Kids 4 Afghan Kids

Improving the education sector and expanding opportunities for young children in Afghanistan is the primary concern of numerous nonprofit organizations around the world. These include the Bayat Foundation, Sahar Education, Afghan Institute of Learning, Creating Hope International, and Development and Relief of Medical for Afghan Nation.

One organization working to address educational needs in the country is Kids 4 Afghan Kids. Based in the United States, the nonprofit is supported by American students, among other charitable partners, and also works to enhance cultural understanding between students in the two countries.

It was created by an American teacher and her sixth-grade class.

Kids 4 Afghan Kids was founded in 1998 by a group of Grade 6 students in Northville, Michigan. Along with the support of their teacher Khris Nedham, they wanted to provide humanitarian assistance to kids in Afghanistan who lacked the resources they had.

Targeting the Wonkhai Valley, a rural mountainous region southwest of Kabul, students raised $100,000 in three years to support the construction of a six-room school, medical clinic, guest house, bakery, and a community well. The school opened with six teachers and 465 students from Grade 1 to 6 and now has nearly 1,200 students and 16 teachers.

Students at the Northville school continue to raise money for the development of schools and other resources in the Wonkhai Valley. They achieve this via bake sales, silent auctions, and selling bracelets and Afghan products at craft fairs and other events like the Alternate Christmas Fair and Northville Victorian Festival.

Kids 4 Afghan Kids was recently added to Global Giving’s list of permanent organizations. Nedham, who still serves as its US director, earned a Citizen Diplomacy award in 2007 and addressed the Sarasota World Affairs Council in 2014.

It has helped build four schools in Afghanistan.

Since the completion of its first school in March 2001, Kids 4 Afghan Kids has raised money to support the build of an additional three schools. The first school had six classrooms. Kids 4 Afghan Kids has since built high schools. Its next goal is to build a community college for graduating students; 165 students graduated from its schools in 2014 alone.

It has supported clinic and orphanage construction.

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During the construction of the first school in Afghanistan, Kids 4 Afghan Kids thought a lot about health care and the importance of maintaining a healthy student body. They wanted all students to be able to make the most of this new educational opportunity. The nonprofit raised money to construct a clinic across the street from the school with the purpose of providing maternity care and vaccinations for polio and MMR.

Staffed by a physician, nurse, pharmacist, nurse-midwife, and registration clerk, the clinic saw more than 200 patients per day upon opening and vaccinated roughly 98 percent of children in Wonkhai Valley. Students at the Northville school have also regularly donated eyeglasses to be used by Afghan students.

In 2002, Kids 4 Afghan Kids took notice of a significant need for an orphanage in the area. At the time, more than 30 boys were living at the school. These boys, with the help of adults in the village, dug out space for the basement of an orphanage.

During this time, students at the Northville school agreed to raise money to support the construction of the building. The orphanage now provides shelter to approximately 50 boys.

It works with a variety of partner organizations.

Since Kids 4 Afghan Kids was launched in 1998, its fund-raising avenues have expanded to include Global Giving and AmazonSmile. AmazonSmile donates 0.5 percent of the purchase price on eligible products to the nonprofit of the user’s choice.

It is considered one of the most reliable humanitarian organizations.

Following the construction of its first school, Kids 4 Afghan Kids earned recognition as one of the Center for International Disaster Information’s most reliable humanitarian organizations. Education is a valuable and in-demand resource among children in remote regions in Afghanistan. As a result, constructing schools is significantly less problematic than other charitable acts.

“For 15 years I have been answering inquiries from schools regarding how they can best respond to international emergencies,” noted CIDI Director Suzanne H. Brooks. “There have been canned food drives, used clothing or toy collections and other activities which, while they are well intended, are often problematic for the relief agencies in terms of transportation, warehousing and distribution and inappropriate or potentially harmful for disaster victims in terms of cultural, religious, and dietary needs.”

4 Things You Need to Know about Afghan Culture

Afghanistan is home to a rich and diverse culture that has been shaped by various factors. These include the ethnic make-up of the country as well as the dominant religion, Islam.

Afghanistan’s central position along historic trade routes also played a role in shaping its culture by exposing the Afghan people to influences from western Asia, eastern Asia, and Europe. More recently, other Western cultures have affected its culture, but this influence is mostly felt among those living in larger cities.

Despite these various influences, Afghan culture is unique. It is built on ancient local traditions that are still alive and well throughout the country. Take a look at these four things you need to know about Afghan culture:

1. Afghan people go out of their way for guests.

Anyone who has ever spent time in Afghanistan has no doubt been exposed to the incredible level of hospitality that locals extend to their guests. As an essential aspect of Afghan culture, hospitality is instilled in Afghan people at an early age. Proverbs and stories highlight the formal and informal cultural expectations related to how one should treat family, friends, and strangers.

Afghan people will go out of their way to ensure that everyone who visits their home feels welcome and comfortable. Regardless of who they’ve invited over, an Afghan host will not let their guest leave without feeling full of food, tea, and good conversation.

A typical meal consists of several courses, and guests’ plates are usually refilled as soon as they are emptied. After the meal, guests are treated to tea and more food, typically dried fruit and sweets such as cake and cookies.  

This type of sharing and hospitality is referred to in Afghanistan as “the right of salt,” and it’s generally viewed as a religious obligation to treat others with kindness and respect. For those visiting the country, it’s important to honor a host’s generosity by showing gratitude and graciousness while in their home.

2. Afghan food is fabulous.

While on the topic of Afghan food and hospitality, it’s important to take a moment to address how delicious the cuisine of Afghanistan is. Many people focus on the kebabs and rice, but Afghan cuisine is much more sophisticated than these staple dishes would indicate.

Afghanistan’s position at the crossroads of several major civilizations has exposed the country to the flavors of Indian, Middle Eastern, and Asian cuisines. Afghan food, however, is in a category all its own. In Afghanistan, recipes are passed down through the generations. Food provides much more than sustenance. It also brings families together and helps them stay connected with their ancestors. 

Some favorite traditional dishes include mantu, a meat-filled dumpling, and aashak, a scallion-filled pasta. Both dishes are traditionally topped with a tomato-based sauce and served with a side of yogurt and mint. These traditional dishes and others such as borani banjan, kabuli pulao, and korme kofta are a major part of Afghan culture. They play a large role in celebrations and special occasions.

3. Afghan people love sports.

Many people do not know that Afghanistan is a country full of sports fans. One traditional sport associated with Afghans is buzkashi. This polo-like game is played on horseback; a goat carcass is used instead of a ball.

While buzkashi is the country’s national sport, more conventional sports also enjoy a significant following throughout Afghanistan. Football (soccer) and cricket are by far the most popular. In addition, many Afghans are taking up activities such as martial arts and boxing.

It may come as a surprise that bodybuilding, weightlifting, and powerlifting have a long history in the country. In fact, these activities have been popular among Afghan men for decades. According to the Afghan National Bodybuilding Federation, which was founded in the mid-1960s, there are now more than 1,000 weightlifting gyms spread out across Kabul and other towns and cities across the country.

4. Afghanistan is a society of poets.

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Although the literacy rate in Afghanistan hovers just above 30 percent, poetry has been part of the heart and soul of Afghan culture for millennia. During the early days of Afghan civilization, kingdoms and castles throughout the region had an official poet. These poets were selected through poetry contests, which are still popular among children and adults in modern Afghanistan.  

Today, the majority of Afghans are raised on a steady diet of poetry fed to them by recitation from teachers and parents, who learned verse from their parents before them. Because of this tradition, everyone from taxi drivers and shopkeepers to Afghan mullahs and other local leaders shares a love for poets and their work.

While some of the country’s monuments and other historical treasures have been damaged or destroyed during recent conflicts, the poetry of Afghanistan still thrives. It appears in news columns and is heard on street corners throughout the country. It is even used to tell Afghan history and make a point during arguments. Perhaps most importantly, poetry is the common thread that binds all Afghans regardless of age, ethnicity, and social status.