Spotlight on the Afghanistan National Institute of Music

Afghanistan’s rich and complex musical heritage—one of the world’s longest-thriving musical traditions—was nearly silenced by years of civil conflict. But today, the sounds of music are being heard throughout the country once again, due in large part to the efforts of the Afghanistan National Institute of Music (ANIM). Read on to learn the story of this amazing institution that is helping to revive Afghanistan’s musical legacy.

 

Mission

ANIM logoAs Afghanistan’s leading institute for music education, ANIM is dedicated to providing a learning environment that is dynamic, challenging, and safe. Welcoming students of all backgrounds—including some of Afghanistan’s most disadvantaged children—ANIM aims to assure musical rights, transform the lives of Afghans through music, revive and preserve Afghanistan’s musical heritage, train future music educators and leaders, and promote cultural diplomacy efforts between Afghanistan and the international community.

 

Founder

ANIM’s founder Dr. Ahmad Sarmast is a musicologist and the son of one of Afghanistan’s best-known conductors. Having left Afghanistan to escape civil conflict in the early 1990s, he received a master’s degree in musicology from Moscow University in 1993, and then relocated with his family to Australia, where he completed a PhD at Melbourne’s Monash University in 2005. Shortly thereafter, Dr. Sarmast returned to Afghanistan to initiate the Revival of Afghan Music (ROAM) project, which focuses on preserving Afghanistan’s primarily oral music tradition by recording it using western music notation. The dream for ANIM emerged out of Dr. Sarmast’s work on the ROAM project. Today, Dr. Sarmast is widely credited with ushering in Afghanistan’s musical revolution.

 

History

Upon his return to Afghanistan, alongside the ROAM project, Dr. Sarmast began planning for ANIM with the support of Afghanistan’s Ministry of Education and the Deputy Ministry for Technical Vocation and Educational Training. In April 2008, after two years of preparation, Dr. Sarmast took the vision for ANIM to the donor community. After garnering support from many donors, including the World Bank, the US Embassy, and the government of Germany, the inauguration of the Afghanistan National Institute of Music took place on June 20, 2010.

Since its establishment, ANIM has become known locally and internationally as a leader not only in music education, but in promoting intercultural dialogue within and beyond Afghanistan. Today, ANIM is home to nearly 250 students.

 

Programs – General Academics and Music

guitarANIM students, who range in age from grade 4 to grade 14, receive both specialized music training and a comprehensive core academic education in line with the priorities of Afghanistan’s Ministry of Education. Students’ lessons include mathematics, science, social sciences, languages (Dari, Pashto, Arabic, and English), Quaranic studies, and Islamic studies.

Upon their entry to ANIM in grade 4, students begin learning recorder. In grade 5, they make their choice of specialist instrument from the full range of instruments in both Afghan and Western classical traditions. Music education includes instrumental lessons, music theory from both Western and Hindustani traditions, ear training, ensemble playing, and music history. ANIM’s faculty use traditional teaching methods, such as learning music aurally, to teach students in both group classes and one-on-one lessons. For Western music lessons, ANIM has benefitted from the expertise of hundreds of international guest artists and teachers.

Students graduate at the grade 12 level with a high school certificate and can choose to take further associate degree courses in grades 13 and 14.

Ensembles

The heart of music education at ANIM is ensemble playing, and the institute features a number of ensembles, large and small, that offer students the opportunity to collaborate, share, and contribute. These ensembles include:

Afghan Youth Orchestra—The first orchestra of its kind to be established in Afghanistan in more than 30 years, the AYO showcases the country’s unique and diverse musical landscape by combining Western orchestral instruments with traditional Afghan and North Indian classical instruments. The AYO has performed on numerous national and international tours, including sold-out shows in the United States at the Kennedy Center and Carnegie Hall.

Young Afghan Traditional Ensemble—Under the direction of renowned rubab teacher Ustad Khial Mohammad, the beloved Young Afghan Traditional Ensemble brings the beautiful sounds of traditional Afghan instruments to life. Particularly in demand for local performances, this ensemble has also toured extensively on the international stage, including performances in the US, the UK, Denmark, Argentina, and South Korea.

Sitar and Sarod Ensemble—This ensemble features students of North India’s traditional instruments—the sitar, the sarod, and the table—performing Afghan and Indian classical music.

Qawwali Group—This vocal-based group features two lead singers, supporting singers, and musicians playing beautiful, religious-themed music using traditional Afghan and Indo-Afghan classical instruments.

Choir—ANIM’s choir is a powerful ensemble that performs regularly at important political and social events around Kabul, including official ceremonies for Afghanistan’s president. The choir also performed at Choir Fest Middle East in Dubai in March 2015, when they took home the award for Best Regional Choir.

Spotlight on The Asia Foundation – Supporting Education for Afghans

As part of its mission to improve lives across the diverse regions of a dynamic and rapidly developing Asia, The Asia Foundation works hard to improve the quality of local education and expand access to educational opportunities in all areas where it operates. In Afghanistan, The Asia Foundation works closely with local NGO partners, as well as all levels of the formal education system, to strengthen all areas of Afghanistan’s education system, including student enrolment and achievement, teaching quality, curriculum development, and school infrastructure.

The educational programs supported by The Asia Foundation—all of which are carefully aligned with the strategies and priorities of Afghanistan’s ministries of Education and Higher Education—focus on boosting primary school literacy, improving teacher training, facilitating civil society and government agency participation in the educational sector, as well as developing employment-oriented educational initiatives. Read on to learn more about some of The Asia Foundation’s most recent work in the world of Afghan education.

Programs to enhance numeracy and literacy skills

school childrenBooks for Asia—Established nearly 15 years ago, the foundation’s Books for Asia program has delivered millions of books and educational materials to provincial schools, universities, public libraries, NGOs, and government ministries in all 34 of Afghanistan’s provinces. One of the Books for Asia program’s biggest achievements in Afghanistan has been the distribution of a special collection of traditional Afghan folktales to schools across the country. Published by Hoopee Books, the collection was written in English, Pashto, and Dari. Since 2012, more than 1.2 million of these books have been donated to nearly 600 schools.

Primary school programs—Children who learn literacy and numeracy skills at a young age are much more likely to go on to pursue higher education. This is the reason why The Asia Foundation supports a number of local organizations, such as the Afghanistan Center at Kabul University (ACKU) and the IT company Liwal, Ltd., in building a strong culture of reading for primary school children in Afghanistan. Through initiatives such as increased library access and the publication of easy-to-read books, these partners are working to make reading easy and fun for young Afghan students, as well as their parents and adult family members. Liwal, Ltd. is also developing an innovative new mobile app for primary school literacy in collaboration with The Asia Foundation. The app, which will initially be available to 2,000 Kabul children from grades one to three, will help them to read books in Dari and Pashto.

Libraries—The Afghanistan Center at Kabul University (ACKU), the only library in Afghanistan to house a comprehensive collection of research materials, has been visited by over 61,000 users since 2015. In addition to providing technical support and fiduciary oversight to ACKU, The Asia Foundation supports the Center’s Afghanistan Box Library Extension program (ABLE). Created in an effort to help provide remote communities with much-needed educational materials, ABLE creates new “box libraries” (which are basically conveniently located depositories of books) in isolated areas, and expands the collections of existing libraries. In the past year alone, 17 new box libraries have been created and more than 20,000 books and learning materials have been sent to libraries.

Programs for curriculum development

Given the significant percentage of students who do not pass the math and science sections of Afghanistan’s national public university entrance exam, known as the Kankor exam, it is clear that the math and science curriculum in Afghanistan’s public school system is in need of improvement. To this end, The Asia Foundation has formed a close partnership with the General Directorate of Science and Education Technology, the Ministry of Education department that oversees both curriculum development and teacher training.

Together with the Directorate, The Asia Foundation is supporting the training of 900 math and science teachers, as well as 65 lab technicians, in Badakhshan, Kandahar, and Khost. The goal is not only to create a more relevant and comprehensive curriculum, but to ensure that the teachers themselves are more comfortable with the material and thus better able to support their students. Up-to-date equipment can also make a big difference in students’ learning experience. The Asia Foundation has helped to distribute 300 pieces of laboratory equipment to 54 of those schools involved in the curriculum development program.

Programs for organizational capacity building

While Afghan-led programming makes the most sense for an effective Afghan school system, many educational organizations that would normally take the lead in this area lack the capacity, resources, or organizational governance to do so. To help address this discrepancy, The Asia Foundation conducts an organizational capacity development assessment—a participatory tool that provides a complete overview of an organization—for each of its local education partners in order to evaluate organizational stability and sustainability. When deficiencies or challenges are identified, the foundation provides training sessions to help the organization bridge the gap. Sessions can cover topics such as human resources, financial sustainability, strategic planning, and finance and administration. The overall goal is to help local organizations build their own effective governance structures and reduce dependence on funding from international donors.

 

Spotlight on the National Museum of Afghanistan

Once the home of one of the most important collections in Central Asia, the National Museum of Afghanistan was particularly hard-hit by the effects of years of civil conflict. Today, however, the National Museum is one again assuming a proudly central role in the preservation of Afghanistan’s rich cultural and archaeological heritage. Read on to learn more about this fascinating institution.

History of the National Museum

National Museum in Kabul

Image by Ninara | Flickr

The original National Museum of Afghanistan was founded in 1919 in Kabul’s Bagh-i-Bala palace. The collection at that time consisted of a variety of objects—including weapons, manuscripts, miniatures, and art pieces—which had belonged to the nation’s former royal families. After a temporary move to the king’s palace in Kabul’s city center some years later, the National Museum was established in its present home, a former municipal building, in 1931.

These early years also brought about a dramatic enrichment of the National Museum’s collection. In 1922, the Délégation Archéologique Française en Afghanistan (DAFA) was created at the request of the Afghan government to spearhead archaeological research and excavations at historic sites throughout Afghanistan. Finds and artefacts unearthed by this delegation, as well as by other delegations in the years that followed, were gradually added to the National Museum’s collection until it comprised an estimated 100,000 pieces covering a historical period of many millennia.

Despite being looted and damaged by fighting during the many years of conflict, the National Museum of Afghanistan saved many thousands of artefacts by concealing them in secret hiding places. Today, those collections are being restored and once again made available to the public. In recent years, the National Museum has also been undergoing a major expansion, and has been working with international partners to coordinate the return of looted artefacts to their home country.

Collections and exhibitions

The National Museum of Afghanistan’s collections and exhibitions cover a broad range of historical, cultural, and artistic periods and styles. Some of the National Museum’s recent exhibitions include:

The Bamiyan-Borobudur photo exhibition

Exploring the cultural links and shared heritage of Afghanistan and Indonesia, the Bamiyan-Borobudur photo exhibition examines the two UNESCO World Heritage sites of the Bamiyan Valley in Afghanistan and the Borobudur Temple compound in Indonesia, both of which are widely recognized as masterpieces of the Buddhist faith. These sites play an important role in the Buddhist legacy of the two countries; a central aim of the exhibition is not only to introduce museum visitors to these two unique sites, but also to foster important cross-cultural dialogue between Afghanistan and Indonesia. The establishment of the exhibition at the National Museum was carried out in close cooperation with Indonesia’s embassy in Kabul.

Aynak Copper exhibition

Located in an area about 40 kilometers south of Kabul, close to the historic “silk route” to India, the Mes Aynak copper mine is one of the most important sites ever to be discovered in Afghanistan, with archaeological deposits stretching over thousands of hectares. Excavations began in 1963, and so far, three key areas have been excavated: Gol Hamid, which revealed the Pa Buddhist temple; Kafiriat Tepe, the site of a second monastic complex; and the Baba Wali mountain, where copper ore is located. The architecture and artefacts that have so far been revealed date back as far as the second century AD, and span the period between that time and the emergence of Islam in the eighth century AD. Coins, ceramics, unbaked clay sculptures, stone reliefs, and wall paintings have all been part of this rich find.

Bactria (Thousand Cities) exhibition

Present-day northern Afghanistan was once home to the region of Bactria, famed among classical historians for its “thousand cities,” its wealth, and its natural beauty. Excavations carried out in this region have yielded an incredible glimpse of life over many thousands of years. Archaeological sites from the Stone Age, the Bronze Age, the Greco-Bactrian Kingdom (around the time of Alexander the Great), and the Kushan and later periods have all been established in this region.

The National Museum on tour

One of the main objectives of the National Museum of Afghanistan has been introducing not only Afghans, but also the wider world to the country’s impressive cultural heritage. With that aim in mind, an international tour called “Afghanistan: Hidden Treasures from the National Museum, Kabul” took place between 2008 and 2011. Visiting some of the biggest museums in the world—including the British Museum in London and the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York—the “Hidden Treasures” exhibition showed the world some of Afghanistan’s most important artefacts, including a Bronze Age set of gold bowls from the ancient city of Fullol, objects from the Greek city of Ai Khanum in what is now northern Afghanistan, and examples of Bactrian gold discovered in the graves of Tillya Tepe, a huge earthen barrow that was created as the burial site for a first-century prince.